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The Big Tree

Alex Williamson

Last Updated October 30, 2014


This is a draft phylogenetic tree for the R-L21 Y-DNA haplogroup. The data for this tree comes from Big Y tests taken at Family Tree DNA, as well as FGC Elite tests completed by FullGenomes Corp. The tree is routinely updated to include recent results. A summary of changes made can be found here.

The tree is open to any R-L21 man who wishes to contribute their results. If you have Big Y or FGC results, and they don't appear in the tree below, please e-mail them to me and I'll include them. Better yet, upload your raw data to the R-L21 Yahoo Group so that they'll be available to other researchers. It's free to join the group, and it's a great forum to get involved in R-L21 research. Conversely, if your results do appear below and you don't want them to, e-mail me and I'll remove them.

For the most part, the structure of the diagram reflects the Big Y and FGC data. The coverage for the NGS tests is neither complete nor consistent between men. As such, it is often necessary to make assumptions that should be checked by examination of the BAM file or by direct testing (FTDNA or YSEQ).

Mutations that are shared between multiple clades and INDELs which appear to be nothing more than STRs have not been included. To enable a sensible comparison between men, those INDELs that have been included have been rewritten in a standard form. (A few may still need to be rewritten.)

The blocks in the diagram below are arranged in a tree structure. L21 is at the top of the tree. Within each box, each row corresponds to a physically different but phylogenetically equivalent mutation. Although I'd like to, I haven't tried to include data from all other sources in the tree. Chromo2 or individual SNP testing may actually split some of the blocks.

If no names for a mutation are known, then its position as well as reference and alternate values are given in the form, "POSITION-REF-ALT". For those that are named, if you hover with your mouse over the name, a tooltip will indicate the location, reference and alternate values.

Those mutations written in a lighter color with a question marker after them have not been tested conclusively, and so could potentially be positive or negative. Generally, they were found to be positive in other parallel men.

Those mutations written with a red background color are in some way ambiguous in terms of their position on the Y. Some of these mutations have ZZ series names. These mutations are generally marked as REJECTED in the FTDNA .vcf files, and have multiple variants. They are typically from regions of the Y for which similar regions exist, such as the palindromic region. The most important property of these mutations I'm introducing is that they are phylogenetically consistent. They don't occur in any other men, and they demonstrate a sensible relationship to the other known mutations.

L21 S145
L459
S245 Z245
S461 Z290
Z260
FGC3218 S552 Y2598
Z21145
CTS241 DF13 S521
CTS8221 Z2542
DF63 CTS300 S522

Previous versions of this tree had all the children of R-L21 drawn together in one big tree. Such a tree is still available with names and without. For those researchers interested in only one specific branch, it is likely more convenient to choose that branch from the list below:

BranchCountMen
L21*2Berry (37201), Wildes (290662)
L21>DF6319Franklin (54798), Franklin (174870), Franklin (81528), Faust (B2414), Franklin (13335), McFarlin (N76446), MacFarlane (230321), MacFarlane (273077), Black (206124), Black (N51736), Black (109264), Gery (N66966), Schaefer (H1922), Roma (232541), Allan (208171), Broom (N11946), Broom (12311), Bertrand (229499), Bertrand (298668)
L21>DF13*5McDonagh (260685), Green (N40156), Daniel (9875), Blandford (115893), James (35874)
L21>DF13>CTS39372Pruett (185703), Middleton (143584)
L21>DF13>FGC549422Kenyon (116159), Collins (173877), McLaren (43205), McLaren (17642), Maynord (264781), Maynard (248752), Maynard (286072), Maynard (270745), Maynard (259801), Wigand (65932), McDonnell (96153), Jost (0FW1R), Fitzpatrick (H1890), Brunet (198135), Smith (N55408), Leman (268203), Maxwell (288079), Maxwell (276351), Maxwell (320449), Maxwell (3204), Hinman (231244), Wiegand (166617)
L21>DF13>CTS17513Case (N82444), Whelan (83115), Redden (141799)
L21>DF13>CTS119942Posey (275223), Beare (N94507)
L21>DF13>FGC1113452McCartney (202776), Dyers (294056), Edwards (169169), Mulcahy (202133), Barrus (169042), Mahoney (165440), O'Mahony (115485), O'Reilly (257151), Fowler-Finn (N27645), Howie (273871), Coldwell (328050), Corder (181672), Foley (256982), Carroll (N59178), Lee (298545), Davies (163061), O'Donoghue (11211), Sullivan (154255), Anderson (254559), Sullivan (179653), Keith (295125), Glennon (352), Griffin (128753), Peel (N45540), Murray (229625), Crowley (284952), Cremeen (251695), Irwin (75606), McDonald (188279), McDonald (37571), Burns (B5288), McCarthy (128856), McCarthy (107457), Ragan (117962), Riggin (73128), McAuliffe (275522), Robertson (189728), Romstad (H1944), Johnsen (N117672), Brown (290447), Davidson (25836), Brazil (310554), Simmons (10505), Butler (267249), McBee (130070), McRaney (21418), Warthen (169548), Collins (237868), MacDonald (264685), LeFevre (E13942), Edgecombe (KAQZG), Gontaut (176268)
L21>DF13>DF2185McCarthy (10119), McCarthy (222616), Porter (N28007), Leahy (207157), Kennedy (169021), Lawrence (50242), Reddin (133832), Kidd (B6603), Canady (N16254), Killgore (163654), Hall (155957), Miller (213751), Williamson (196041), McCorkle (263928), Wilson (19822), Doggart (237552), Corcoran (N11153), Rowan (209130), Fueston (DQWHW), Yabsley (B1510), Humphrey (51784), Nichols (288211), Cain (BAPCG), Kain (169902), Reynolds (SAXZC), Coberly (N20114), Grant (21340), Grant (108223), Owens (282333), Viar (42087), Viar (157289), Morrison (282328), Morrison (102866), Morrison (26384), Moore (122847), Doolin (45131), Kelley (205429), Phelan (212914), Harbour (112244), Carroll (N41845), Hendricksson (61096), Paden (36836), Johnson (259601), Lawler (180119), Roderick (8551), Compton (N57121), Higgins (96415), McMahon (B2743), Courtney (264834), Carroll (31491), Kern (37416), McQuillan (82960), Edwards (68859), McDaniel (278275), McGuire (222108), McGuire (32277), Biggins (127469), Beeman (113649), ěsterud (328342), Connally (263699), Hart (166797), Hart (182999), White (N69302), Collins (209736), McGuire (319027), Tracey (45013), Linville (23133), Crow (48750), Murphy (194206), Rose (6781), Bowe (146114), Green (253508), Corcoran (256210), Swann (105059), Farris (53766), McClellan (140820), Hamilton (155347), Cupit (N27653), Helm (44592), Doyle (91126), Williams (70983), Maher (11R9D), Cunningham (292794), Montgomery (158136), Oliver (316273)
L21>DF13>DF4140Walker (240201), Walker (29FKD), Morrison (32434), Morrison (82890), Miller (52062), McBurney (170555), McCleland (21647), McCown (29705), McCown (B9S75), McCown (22849), Wilson (256811), Matthews (116493), Ryley (N76583), Robinson (U2676), Thompson (239315), Pearce (35963), Stuart (147822), Stewart (330477), Stewart (283694), Webb (75703), Clancey (5987), Stewart (164047), Stuart (315522), Stuart (E16164), Stewart (128499), Stewart (187778), Ward (256138), Black (284562), Duffy (176148), Lamberson (31023), Lamberson (348926), Louw (223212), Samuel (N104746), Selfe (53479), Conn (17609), MacMillan (47694), Dixon (252939), McCrere (35212), Powell (EFNHB), Pike (343554)
L21>DF13>DF4961Lally (B1871), Lally (181933), Dowell (53095), McConnaughhay (205297), Brennan (329024), Leister (N26284), Daugherty (320253), Dunbar (56598), McCollum (N104491), Haggerty (214610), Milligan (135550), Milliken (169185), Millikin (12068), Hamilton (98188), Burns (30771), Dunbar (205549), Lane (43598), Ewing (215509), Wilson (78346), Milliken (23702), McKenny (7213), Ferguson (12701), Williams (229652), Degnen (88905), Howle (56154), Braswell (230303), O'Shaughnessy (36712), Riley (146333), Leonard (47582), MacDaibheid (167335), Morrison (196477), Mullins (343491), Whelan (Early) (B3060), Conroy (WHU9V), Gillespie (94854), Wilson (S4C39), Sheridan (178883), Cunniff (27202), Dexter (164044), Freeman (12305), Courtney (300324), Joyce (N108400), Thomas (B2944), Trainor (MRD4P), Sullivan (255112), Johnston (262468), Caldwell (137235), Vaughn (108697), Wilson (59601), Stedman (117897), Smith (204936), Blair (255954), Officer (230866), Bengtsson (256925), Allison (B3231), Hopkins (33932), Culver (205239), Reynolds (96841), Pruett (122950), Pruitt (256386), Pruitt (237862)
L21>DF13>L133554Templeton (63127), Unknown (270944), MacRae Halligan (143812), MacRae (241056), MacRae (203147), McDonald (12816), McDonald (12836), Jamieson (21165), McPherson (90181), MacDonald (57711), McCoy (100137), McCoy (B1955), McCoy (95886), MacDonald (160609), MacDonald (167382), Bissett (208355), McDaniel (221193), Hosie (84796), Lindsey (230483), Bain (161189), Taylor (6MVR8), Young (147012), Ro(d)gers (156568), Moore (153130), Kiler (238132), Bolton (28273), MacPherson (N51005), McPherson (159792), McKinnon (117764), Tagert (14346), Alexander (36198), Alexander (43454), Alexander (89325), Alexander (89324), Unknown (227541), Alexander (233722), McGregor (191228), Stewart (190435), Ferguson (182121), Looper (260814), Cameron (285203), MackMillion (14555), MacMillan (48641), McCoy (H1003), McDowell (74757), Bennett (B1047), Neilson (108937), Lee (10348), Iles (7DCXW), Gillespie (284138), Tate (N44383), Erickson (N5620), Price (19706), Price (228773)
L21>DF13>L3711Turner (N84982)
L21>DF13>L51371Kennedy (9139), Kennedy (279185), Little (279183), Little (144090), Beatty (174934), Little (45742), Little (13273), McVittie (192941), Glandenning (49038), McDonald (190210), Knox (268319), Meek (159822), Black (279772), Davidson (231779), Ferguson (46951), Proffitt (154439), Sinkler (29753), Sinclair (110067), MacPherson (50994), McConnell (83015), Fitzpatrick (H1601), Carey (197401), McLoughlin (251996), Guild (271595), Robertson (65521), Cameron (37986), Mackenzie (260538), MacKenzie (39431), Williams (215816), Connell (43722), Plunkett (61721), McGuire (226869), McGuire (N2051), McCown (31293), Clarke (139578), Bruen (228829), Byrne (N86695), Byrne (56563), Pillsbury (132342), Hayes (95100), Hays (N28178), Merrick (250219), Thomas (8633), Devine (4479), Diver (N112468), Matthews (234631), Fritts (131998), Roddy (286080), Nicholson (224032), Nicholson (230107), Connor (211516), Moody (175552), Healy (N57202), Coleman (204537), Martini (276580), Noe (188436), Collins (264348), Kingston (106714), White (21834), Winters (52669), Winter (56277), Wilson (117944), Sunesson (N29541), Welsh (238987), Walsh (N54638), Barrett (58568), Reid (7WDDR), Vance (56954), Kane (228009), Rose (32119), Roberts (210379)
L21>DF13>L6792Bond (170191), Turner (311690)
L21>DF13>Z173002Walter (N114163), Gregory (23361)
L21>DF13>Z165006Bean (B3500), Bayne (54142), Norton (271376), Secher (E5945), Parry (105425), Durall (26059)
L21>DF13>S102611Mather (284128), LeDuc (235406), Blais (293753), Ingram (N113834), McDaniel (36483), Dowell (26082), Dowell (26215), Murphy (167501), Murphy (267584), OConnor (N12172), Wahab (190229)
L21>DF13>S10515Porter (N8772), Raburn (30949), Henry (316659), Britton (191679), Hammond (188927)
L21>DF13>Z25128Cunningham (311268), Erwin (65048), Irvine (22874), Donatella (N117305), Withers (N126307), Breen (20156), Desmond (N98521), Burgin (231656), Norman (24273), McDonald (255219), Lewis (187172), Rickwood (196158), Churchman (116944), Brock (327025), Yurzditsky (ZLHF1), Burde (201644), Harrington (109174), Crawford (180639), Bell (220731), Hopkins (188401), Pierce (N10900), Roberts (N44578), Richards (79421), Davis (264132), Dorr (N112316), Sanchez (171804), Godwin (0ANEE), Castle (189806)
L21>DF13>ZZ10*1Whidden (204709)
L21>DF13>ZZ10>CTS33864Murphy (251710), McNeilage (227117), Heikki (253986), MacConnell (95316)
L21>DF13>ZZ10>MC143Cameron (144395), Muny (N49035), Beatty (3026)
L21>DF13>ZZ10>Z25361Casey (91CZO), O'Brien (48596), O'Brien (29355), Dunn (N54074), McMahon (293008), Anderson (16274), Riel (N97658), Cannon (N54074), Wright (25505), Martin (260936), Clancy (241991), McCabe (244911), Musgraves (132694), O'Shea (237481), Williams (43543), Goff (B2394), Fitzpatrick (289541), O'Shea (27770), Coker (141217), Fletcher (79763), Donaldson (298547), Bridgnel (275343), Ramsey (N16295), Murray (B3820), Hockings (264622), Downing (N112169), MacKenzie (40717), McKenzie (280514), Whitehead (81795), LeGall (233265), Saldana (58625), McIan (115596), Godfrey (106724), Yorke (212724), Roderick (134798), Christie (49737), Murta (205635), Tompkins (B4794), Parham Mangum (6874), Mangum (6879), Mangham (8621), Canady (N26398), Morgan (N85391), Mitchell (94662), McClure (99512), Stabley (149770), Hill (284099), Pry (172277), Taylor (329685), Pike (23996), Sothwell (10999), Robertson (257069), Ward (255297), Buchanan (200481), Anderson (174932), Heffernan (219896), Carrucan (71421), Cursonwhit (29145), Moore (169385), Vennemore (229805), Kiely (86086)
L21>DF13>ZZ10>Z25536Coyle (90790), Spence (35733), Park (40730), Burns (N2871), Byrne (196076), Byrne (54354), Byrne (170615), Wynne (325507), Byrne (5074), Rennie (138281), Singleton (326583), Byrne (246890), Grant (97440), Knowles (262052), Humphries (273539), Barry (N8296), Berry (178431), Berry (69605), Quilliam (88224), Doty (33100), Beattie (3032), Beatty (158241), Beattie (13806), Murphy (185218), Phillips (275787), O'Shea (10359), Friberg (315017), Fitzpatrick (H1868), Weymouth (N2553), Olsen (231221), Blake (252528), Gleason (N101540), Prendergast (228288), Phelps (100136), Creamer (46114), Miller (219493)

The data for this diagram comes from this Excel file. It has both the data in it, as well as the VBA code that generates this webpage.

Comments and questions are always welcome.

Contact me at Alex@LittleScottishCluster.com.